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Mice with targeted disruptions in retinoic acid receptor genes have been generated to assess the role of nuclear receptors as transducers of the retinoid signal during vertebrate development. Mice with mutations that disrupt all isoforms of the RAR alpha, RAR beta and RAR gamma genes as well as for the individual RAR alpha 1, RAR beta 2 and RAR gamma 2 have been described. By breeding the RAR alpha 1 and RAR beta strains together we have generated double mutants which have striking phenotypes not discernible in mice homozygous for the individual mutations. Mice lacking both RAR alpha 1 and RAR beta died shortly after birth because of hypoxia, although individual RAR alpha 1 and RAR beta mutants were phenotypically normal. As previously observed in RAR compound mutants, histological examination of 18.5 dpc fetuses of RAR alpha 1 -/-beta-/- double mutants revealed a number of congenital malformations which in many respects were similar to those observed in fetuses of vitamin A-deficient mothers. The regions of congenital defects in RAR alpha 1 -/-beta-/- double mutants included the eye, the skull, the respiratory tract, the heart, the aortic arch-derived great vessels, and urogenital system. The penetrance of malformations in RAR alpha 1 -/-beta-/- mutants was greater than that in the reported RAR alpha 1 -/-beta 2-/- double mutants. Moreover, RAR alpha 1 -/-beta-/- mutants exhibited hypoplastic lungs and ossified fusion between basioccipital and exoccipital bones that were not reported in the RAR alpha 1 -/-beta2-/- animals, and displayed ectopic thymus and an unique defect in testis suggesting specific roles for RAR beta 1, 3 and/or 4 isoforms in these structures. The RAR alpha 1 single mutant animals as well as RAR alpha 1-/- beta-/- double mutant mice were susceptible to the teratogenic effects of RA, demonstrating that RAR alpha 1 and RAR beta isoforms singly or in combination do not play a major role in RA-induced craniofacial malformation and limb deformities.
Chondrogenesis is a multistep process culminating in the establishment of a precisely patterned template for bone formation. Previously, we identified a loss in retinoid receptor-mediated signaling as being necessary and sufficient for expression of the chondroblast phenotype (Weston et al., 2000. J. Cell Biol. 148:679-690). Here we demonstrate a close association between retinoic acid receptor (RAR) activity and the transcriptional activity of Sox9, a transcription factor required for cartilage formation. Specifically, inhibition of RAR-mediated signaling in primary cultures of mouse limb mesenchyme results in increased Sox9 expression and activity. This induction is attenuated by the histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A, and by coexpression of a dominant negative nuclear receptor corepressor-1, indicating an unexpected requirement for RAR-mediated repression in skeletal progenitor differentiation. Inhibition of RAR activity results in activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and protein kinase A (PKA) pathways, indicating their potential role in the regulation of chondrogenesis by RAR repression. Accordingly, activation of RAR signaling, which attenuates differentiation, can be rescued by activation of p38 MAPK or PKA. In summary, these findings demonstrate a novel role for active RAR-mediated gene repression in chondrogenesis and establish a hierarchical network whereby RAR-mediated signaling functions upstream of the p38 MAPK and PKA signaling pathways to regulate emergence of the chondroblast phenotype.
Existing Risk Treatment refers to the mitigating measures already put into place by the organization to handle recognized threats. 4 risk treatments are available to address the majority of the risks posed by threats
The section is for participants attending the BL-B-5 Module 2 or WSQ-BCM-310 Module 1 Session 1 facilitated workshop, this is the additional instruction to complete your Risk Analysis & Review assignment.
All of us from time to time receive digital archive packages, whether they are downloaded online or get sent over by our friends. Occasionally, we might be even packaging and distributing archives ourselves. But few of us stop and think why exactly do we do this.
In general, archives help us achieve two essential goals: decrease file size and unite a group of files into a single package. The first goal relies heavily on a compression algorithm and thus differs from format to format, whereas the second goal is equally achievable by all popular archivers on the market.
RAR is a file format for an archive. Eugene Roshal developed the format in 1993, and the name of the format is short for Roshal Archive. This file format's primary purpose is data compression to save space.
Unarchiver is a free simple tool that lets you, well, unarchive hundreds of file formats, including RAR. Originally developed by Dag Agren over 10 years ago, it quickly gained millions of users due to its unobtrusive interface and fast performance. To open .rar on Mac with Unarchiver:
Another neat Archiver feature is the ability to split your archives into multiple volumes. This is handy when you need to send a large file, like a movie, over email. To do that, simply choose Split when adding your archive to the app and select the appropriate size for each resulting archive.
Finally, type in the unar command, then drag and drop your archive onto Terminal for it to generate the path to your archive. Press Enter to unzip your RAR file, it will be saved to your user folder on Mac. To save it to the folder of your choice, navigate to the respective directory in Terminal or move the files after they are unarchived.
Archived files are less susceptible to errors and damage, and more likely to arrive to your recipient in mind condition: especially when it concerns folders with multiple files and media, such as movies and music.
Best of all, both Archiver and BetterZip are available for you to try free on Setapp, a platform of more than 200 top Mac apps that solve any problem you happen to come across. Pack your files and send them away!
I have a multipart .rar archive containing a single .tar.gz file inside it (don't ask why, that is just how it was made). I am missing a few of the parts, but do have the first part. I would like to extract as much of the .tar.gz as possible. How can I do that?
when it was done, I loaded the file in Deluge bittorrent client, and forced recheck, and I was only missing the percentage that I really didn't have, meaning the bittorrent client identified that I do have the true information between all the zeros I added.
I had a password protected RAR archive in 6 parts, but part4 was missing. I tried to use WinRAR's repair function but it said it couldn't find the recovery record. I tried the methods above but they didn't work and the extraction always stopped where the missing part started.
Finally, I decided to fool WinRAR into thinking parts 5 and 6 were a different archive and renamed them as "archive.part1.rar" and "archive.part2.rar". I then told WinRAR to extract the new part 1 and even though I got an error message saying it couldn't extract the file that ended at the beginning of the new part 1 (as it was missing some data from the missing part 4), it managed to extract all the other files from the original parts 5 and 6.
I had only the second part of two part rar archive, while unpacking part 2 as expected winrar popped a message saying the first part was missing; I also noticed that the full content of part two had been unpacked in the folder; so without touching winrar's popup message, I copied the unpacked files into another folder and then clicked on close in the winrar's popup message; the unpacked contents were deleted by winrar, but since I had copied them earlier into a different folder, I could use the unpacked content from that different folder.
If the offset you need to seek to isn't prime, then use a block size larger than one. dd can only seek to multiples of the output block size. dd really does make read and write system calls with that block size, so bs=1 really sucks.
A large ibs (input block size) would save half the CPU time, since seek is in units of obs (output block size). Or maybe there's some other tool which can seek to an arbitrary byte position and then do normal-sized I/Os. Or if you were scripting this, you could dd with bs=1 up to 32k-aligned, then maybe tail -c +$misalignment lastpart/file dd ... of=p1/file conv=notrunc bs=32k seek=$(( (full_size - lastpart_size + misalignment) / (32 * 1024) ))
These Standard Operating Procedures, or SOPs, are a set of step-by-step instructions compiled to assist committee office holders carry out often complex and detailed but routine procedures. Our SOPs aim to achieve efficiency, quality output and uniformity of performance, while reducing miscommunication and failure to serve the best interests of the Association.
A .zip or .rar file is a file that stores and compresses one or more other files. Recently, I tried downloading albums from my Flickr account, but I often received the same error message when opening the .zip file: Unexpceted end of archive. Very frustrating; the message was still there even after redownloading that zip file.
There is, however, a solution. This will explain the solution when using WinRar, but it should also work in other popular file archive programs. Also, this error message can appear on various archive filetypes, including .rar, .zip, .tar, .tar.gz
You will then be asked in what folder the repaired archive should be saved. Choose a folder. The archive type should be the same as the file extension of the original file (so if it is a .zip file, choose ZIP and for a .rar. choose Rar). Click OK. 041b061a72